Carbohydrates: Fuel for human body

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Many nutrients are found in the world which are necessary for the maintenance of body and energy requirements. Carbohydrates are one of the most abundant nutrient and main source of energy for your body. Dietary carbohydrates are found mainly in green plants i.e: they are produced by green plants.

Carbohydrates: Fuel for human body

Definition:

      “These are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones and their derivatives which on hydrolysis yields their sub units”

Types:

  • Monosaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides:

These are sweet in taste and simple form of sugar. These are polyhydroxy aldehyde and ketone subunits which cannot be further hydrolyzed in water but they are soluble in water. These may be the following:

  • Trioses
  • Tetroses
  • Pentoses
  • Hexoses
  • Heptoses

In these hexoses and heptoses are the most importants because they are glucose and ribose respectively.

Oligosaccharides:

These are less sweet sugars which on hydrolyze in water yields glucose sub units . These may be :

  • Sucrose
  • Lactose
  • Maltose

 

Sucrose:

It is found in sugarcane and on hydrolysis produces the glucose and fructose sub units.

 

Lactose:

It is milk sugar which on hydrolysis produces glucose and glactose sub units.

 

Maltose:

It is known as maltsugar which on hydrolysis produces glucose subunits.

 

Polysaccharides:

These are complex sugar which are tasteless and less soluble in water and on hydrolysis it yields glucose monomers. These may or may not be in branched form. These includes mainly:

  • Starch
  • Glycogen
  • Cellulose

 

Starch:

It is known as plant sugar which is found in plants in the form of fruits and vegetables these are amylose and amylopectin. on hydrolysis it yields glucose subunits.it gives blue color with iodine.

Glycogen:

It is known as animal sugar which is stored in muscles and liver . on hydrolysis it yields glucose subunits.it gives red color with iodine.

Cellulose:

Most abundant form of carbohydrates found in plants mainly in cotton. on hydrolysis it yields glucose subunits.it gives no color with iodine.

Digestion:

Our food contents contain carbohydrates which are digested in alimentary canal by specific enzyme actions that convert carbohydrates into glucose which provides energy in the form of ATP. This energy is essential for the maintenance of human body. Our most critical functions are run through the energy in the form of ATP which is extracted from glucose.

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1 Comment
  1. Sheikh Ahsan says

    Brilliant

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